Acne is a common skin condition where the pores of your skin clog. Pore blockages produce blackheads, whiteheads and other types of pimples. Pimples are pus-filled, sometimes painful, bumps on your skin.

The medical term for acne is acne vulgaris.

There are several types of acne, including:

  1. Fungal acne (pityrosporum folliculitis): Fungal acne occurs when yeast builds up in your hair follicles. These can be itchy and inflamed.
  2. Cystic acne: Cystic acne causes deep, pus-filled pimples and nodules. These can cause scars.
  3. Hormonal acne: Hormonal acne affects adults who have an overproduction of sebum that clogs their pores.
  4. Nodular acne: Nodular acne is a severe form of acne that causes pimples on the surface of your skin, and tender, nodular lumps under your skin.
Where on my body will I have acne?

             The most common places where you might have acne are on your:

  1. Face.
  2. Forehead.
  3. Chest.
  4. Shoulders.
  5. Upper back.

     Oil glands exist all over your body. The common locations of acne are where oil glands exist the most.

Symptoms of acne on your skin include:

  1. Pimples (pustules): Pus-filled bumps (papules).
  2. Papules: Small, discolored bumps, often red to purple or darker than your natural skin tone.
  3. Blackheads: Plugged pores with a black top.
  4. Whiteheads: Plugged pores with a white top.
  5. Nodules: Large lumps under your skin that are painful.
  6. Cysts: Painful fluid-filled (pus) lumps under your skin.

Acne can be mild and cause a few occasional pimples or it can be moderate and cause inflammatory papules. Severe acne causes nodules and cysts.


Some studies link particular foods and diets to acne, like:

  1. Skim milk.
  2. Whey protein.
  3. Diets high in sugar.

While high-sugar diets may lead to acne outbreaks, chocolate isn’t directly linked to acne.

To reduce your risk of acne, choose to eat a balanced, nutritious diet with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in vitamin C and beta-carotene, which helps reduce inflammation.

Hormones and acne

    Acne is largely a hormonal condition that’s driven by androgen hormones (testosterone). This typically becomes active during teenage and young adult years. You might also notice acne forming around the time of your period as a result of hormone activity. Sensitivity to this hormone — combined with surface bacteria on your skin and substances released from your body’s glands — can result in acne.

Who treats acne?

A general healthcare provider or a dermatologist & plastic surgeon /cosmetic surgeon  can diagnose and treat acne. If you have stubborn acne that doesn’t improve with treatment, a dermatologist can help.

If topical or oral medications don’t work well for your acne or if you have scars from your acne, a healthcare provider may recommend different types of acne therapies to clear your skin, including:

  1. Steroids: Steroids can treat severe acne with injections into large nodules to reduce inflammation.
  2. Lasers: Lasers and light therapy treat acne scars. A laser delivers heat to the scarred collagen under your skin. This relies on your body’s wound-healing response to create new, healthy collagen, which encourages growth of new skin to replace it.
  3. Chemical peels: This treatment uses special chemicals to remove the top layer of old skin. After removal of the top layer of skin, new skin grows in smoother and can lessen acne scars.
  4. Microneedling : MNRF is also effective in reducing the appearance of scars, including acne scars and surgical scars. The micro-needles create controlled injuries in the skin, stimulating the body’s natural healing response and promoting the growth of new, healthy skin cells.
  5. Matrix : Matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology is a safe and economically viable option for the dermatologists for the treatment of acne scars, because of the effective results coupled with a low downtime.

Many topical and oral acne treatments aren’t safe to take during pregnancy. If you’re pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant, it’s important to discuss acne treatments with your healthcare provider and notify them if you become pregnant.

Severe Acne

You can’t completely prevent acne, especially during hormone changes, but you can reduce your risk of developing acne by:

  1. Washing your face daily with warm water and a facial cleanser.
  2. Using an oil-free moisturizer.
  3. Wearing “noncomedogenic” makeup products and removing makeup at the end of each day.
  4. Keeping your hands away from your face.
  5. Consult with best board certified with skin plastic / cosmetic surgeon like arumeen aesthetic centere founder DR.A.SARAVANAN.
  6. Avoid self medications.

     Yes, sometimes acne can cause scarring. This happens when the acne penetrates the top layer of your skin and damages deeper skin layers. Inflammation makes your acne pores swell and the pore walls start to breakdown, which causes skin damage. Scarring can be a source of anxiety, which is normal. Before treatment, your healthcare provider will determine what type of acne caused your scars. There are several treatment options available for acne scars.

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